Older people with a history of migraines and depression may have smaller brain tissue volumes than people with only one or neither of the conditions, according to a new study in the May 22, 2013, online issue of Neurology®, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.
“Studies show that people with migraine have double the risk of depression compared to people without migraine,” said study author Larus S. Gudmundsson, PhD, with the National Institute on Aging and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, in Bethesda, Md. Gudmundsson is also a member of the American Academy of Neurology. “We wanted to find out whether having both conditions together possibly affected brain size.”
For the study, 4,296 people with an average age of 51 were tested for migraine headache from 1967 to 1991; they were later assessed from 2002 to 2006 at an average age of 76 for a history of major depressive disorder (depression). Participants also underwent MRI, from which brain tissue volumes were estimated. A total of 37 participants had a history of both migraine and depression, while 2,753 had neither condition.
The study found that people with both migraine and depression had total brain tissue volumes an average of 19.2 milliliters smaller than those without either condition. There was no difference in the total brain volume when comparing people with only one of the conditions to people with neither condition.
“It is important to note that participants in this study were imaged using MRI once, so we cannot say that migraine and depression resulted in brain atrophy. In future studies, we need to examine at what age participants develop both migraine and depression and measure their brain volume changes over time in order to determine what comes first,” said Gudmundsson.
Gudmundsson noted that some of the factors leading to a joint effect of migraine and depression on brain volume may include pain, brain inflammation, genetics and differences in a combination of social and economic factors. “Our study suggests that people with both migraine and depression may represent a unique group from those with only one of these conditions and may also require different strategies for long-term treatment.”
The Doppler effect is observed whenever the source of waves is moving with respect to an observer. The Doppler effect can be described as the effect produced by a moving source of waves in which there is an apparent upward shift in frequency for observers towards whom the source is approaching and an apparent downward shift in frequency for observers from whom the source is receding. It is important to note that the effect does not result because of an actual change in the frequency of the source. Using the example above, the bug is still producing disturbances at a rate of 2 disturbances per second; it just appears to the observer whom the bug is approaching that the disturbances are being produced at a frequency greater than 2 disturbances/second. The effect is only observed because the distance between observer B and the bug is decreasing and the distance between observer A and the bug is increasing.
The Dopplereffect can be observed for any type of wave - water wave, sound wave, light wave, etc. We are most familiar with the Dopplereffect because of our experiences with sound waves. Perhaps you recall an instance in which a police car or emergency vehicle was traveling towards you on the highway. As the car approached with its siren blasting, the pitch of the siren sound (a measure of the siren’s frequency) was high; and then suddenly after the car passed by, the pitch of the siren sound was low. That was the Dopplereffect - an apparent shift in frequency for a sound wave produced by a moving source.
An important reminder that the universe has three spatial dimensions and is best appreciated with all three engaged*.
*engage fourth as needed for EXTREME MODE
Technically time is the fourth dimension, and since these are repeating .gifs, they do possess a sense of time progression since things are moving
After the horrific shooting sprees at Columbine High School in 1999 and Virginia Tech in 2007, players of violent video games, such as First Person Shooter (FPS) games, have often been accused in the media of being impulsive, antisocial, or aggressive.
However, the question is: do First Person Shooter games also have positive effects for our mental processes? At the University of Leiden, we investigated whether gaming could be a fast and easy way to improve your memory.
Develop an adaptive mindset
Indeed, the new generations of FPS (compared to strategic) games are not just about pressing a button at the right moment but require the players to develop an adaptive mindset to rapidly react and monitor fast moving visual and auditory stimuli.
Gamers compared to non-gamers
In a study published in Psychological Research Journal, Dr. Lorenza Colzato and her fellow researchers compared, on a task related to working memory, people who played at least five hours weekly with people who never played video games.
More flexible brain
The researchers found that gamers outperformed non-gamers. They suggest that video game experience trains your brain to become more flexible in the updating and monitoring of new information enhancing the memory capacity of the gamers.